tv Doc Film - Luther and the Nation Deutsche Welle November 17, 2017 10:15am-11:00am CET
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initially montanus it was only calling for a renewal of the church and his face but the pope and the emperor saw him as a threat and he was demonized by punks. an overwhelming majority of the population at home supported him would martin luther divide or unite the germans. april sixteenth fifteen twenty one it looked like a reenactment of palm sunday in jerusalem.
a man branded a heretic by the church celebrated like the messiah in the german city of forms. he's in with their brother mountain. we could still turn back here. in venice and if death itself were waiting me i would not turn back you unleashed on. martin luther on his way to the imperial diet of worms an assembly of the holy roman empire on german soil an event that would change the course of history. never before had a man of the people excited such enthusiasm ordinary people peasants and members of the lower aristocracy in particular put their hopes in this month that.
even if the pope and the amphora were against him martin luther knew the people of germany were on his side. he was celebrated like a victim but his biggest test was still to come would he remain steadfast. right you're taking a difficult path i wouldn't want to be in your shoes. with my nose. he covered his feet under started a song and now it might prove too high for my voice so often to choose a support did nothing to relieve his anxiety what will be contested behind these doors wasn't a matter of who had the right place it's a new thing it was a matter of life and death. in germany nearly so. sixteenth century did not exist
as a united political entity territorial princes ruled over their own regions of the ten million german speakers one in ten lived in towns the rest in the countryside. the dominant belief was one of a god given order of rulers and the ruled one empire one faith one emperor it was the idea that held the holy roman empire of the german nation together but it was beginning to unravel. at first only criticized abusive practices of the church nepotism corruption and waste but then he publicly rejected any into meijer between man and gone. he singled out the dignitaries of the roman catholic church who he said behaved like princes rather than priests. only the bible was infallible.
luther accused gone's representatives on earth of hubris after layer the tenth was crowned pope in fifteen thirteen he was more an ass patron than an ecclesiastical leader holding cold with pomp and extravagance to underline his power and glory. this pope from the powerful mcgeechan family wasn't interested in theology since god has given us the papacy he said let us enjoy it. transformed rome into a cultural center and political power but he depleted the papal treasury in the process. he commissioned a massive renovation of some peter's basilica in the vatican to pay for it leo encourage the sale of indulgences and exemption from punishment for sins. luther maintained only the mercy of jesus could himself sin not money. the only path to salvation was faith not deeds his ninety five theses attacking corrupt
church practices were quick to second exit across the country the pope threatened luther with excommunication but luther responded by publicly burning the bill humble monk motivated solely by his conscience. the reformation was triggered by the dispute over indulgences luther was convinced that believers were being duped and that their salvation was in jeopardy. he believed the indulgences were lolling people into a false sense of security with disastrous consequences. the fatah list by the time luther was summoned to the diet of the pope had already branded him a heretic. he was given the opportunity to recant before the emperor of princes and nobles of the empire if he did not he faced an imperial ban and death.
decision day had arrived. he must recount. luthor must recant or he'll burn unless he finds powerful supporters luther already had frederick the wise elector of saxony had watched his rebellious subjects popularity grow and he sympathized with his criticisms of the roman catholic church and so he will rise the emperor's rules one way or another. but the empress role has been the role of the gall to call to us. frederick the wise was powerful he was one of seven electors in the empire who chose the emperor and the others with among grave of brandon book the king of bohemia the count palatine of the rhine and the archbishop's of cologne months and treat.
any candidate for king and emperor had to make concessions to the powerful princes that also was true of the hapsburg and for a chance the fifth who was elected in fifty nineteen. the new vive and his election wasn't without controversy if there was opposition and skepticism. the roman curia had a different candid if there were very strong reservations because of his immensely powerful position. and there was prejudice against him as it was viewed as a foreigner in the empire over which he now presided the imminence kaiser for. the hapsburg emperor was unfamiliar with germany and its people even as ruler of the world he could not override the german princes the image he cultivated wasn't just posturing charles was right in saying the sun never sent on his empire.
his prayer book has survived to this day it doesn't just testify to the hapsburg ruinous piety one page depicts the most powerful man on earth kneeling at the feet of a guardian angel. the page shows signs of wear and ten an indication perhaps of the young and for his insecurity. as a devout catholic charles was determined to silence the heretic from the end but the german princes forced him to hand if that out. the end. who spoke no german was represented at the diet of alms by the archbishop of trias legal advisor the empire's top tier witnesses to an unequal jewel a german david against a supremely powerful goliath. yes in three of us and it were gathered here to put an end to the blasphemous elias president by dr knot in luther from
that under the new town i was fifteen back. with with heretics zeal yes cast doubts on paper law thora t. his writings to question the author of the of the church and in so doing he has destroyed the unity of all christians. martin luther are you ready to recount your life's an iris here and now here yet so we don't hold. even knew his powerful supporters advised him to recant. no one can deny that through the pope's laws the consciences of the faithful have been almost pitifully troubled. on does and also today that the possessions of the german nation have been devoured by unbelievable tyranny or that if then i recant the only effect will be to add strength to such tyranny to open not the windows but the main
doors to such blasphemy of. any snitched unless i am convinced by the testimony of scripture or by clear reason i cannot and will not recant anything. so help me god. a man. luther's appearance before the diet of alms went down in history is a turning point in european history but luther didn't have the benefit of hindsight he dared to stand up to the most powerful man on the planet perhaps because he knew
he wasn't alone. in the luther knew he had a far reaching social reform movement beyond him and that enabled him to act the way he did involves in volves in the towns we have the support of the middle class the intellectual elite associated with the humanist money as well as to a degree that the backing of the imperial nightstand and a portion of the clergy supported him to die it is clear was all this coincided with the calculated use of a nascent power of the media the battle to shape public opinion began involves. it was the first propaganda war in european history fought by followers and opponents of the reform of the fryer from a german backwater became an international household name one placed on an equal footing with the pope in the fight for the one true faith.
thousands of flyers were printed some portrayed luther as a saint stuffing the greedy mouth of the roman demon others portrayed him as a divider and a messenger of the devil as a satanic heretic doomed and damned. this visual propaganda in the form of caricature was also reach people who couldn't read . in the battle for hearts and minds luther's supporters made headway but ultimately it was up to the m. for it to pass judgement on the reform of. the hapsburg ruler made his position on luther clear since the king of the germans didn't speak german he composed it in french. many fish do you understand what he's saying. you don't need to understand french to know he has it in for lou there's a lot on in cotton be lickin booze is designed if you're concerned about him.
these. whatever the empress ponders can only end one way i miss you most of. the day you know he wants to see luther burns. to do that he has to get in first he's. in the edict involves charles the fifth declared luther and enemy of the church and state he held a previously issued guarantee of safe conduct but as soon as it expired luther was to be arrested and punished would he come to that. luther set off to return to that and back but the journey was interrupted. what was that hunters yeah god. yes and i
know who they're hunting too. deep in the woods foresman ambush with his carriage. and he goes in they don't want you. luthor had been briefed on the plan what looked like a kidnapping was in fact a rescue operation. to prevent the implementation of the edict of the reformer was bundled off to a secret location. not the door so implementing the forms was difficult for the under offered him from a legal perspective as he had no executive organs to enforce out there and he depended on the willingness of the regional princess to publish the edict and enforce it and in that territory they trust and under. these as it is naturally fredricka the why is that no such intention letter lish for those devices it docked
it garnished on. luther's princely protector had different plans frederick the wise hid the reforma advanced book castle now eyes enough in his area of jurisdiction. as a territorial prince the electorate of saxony made use of his autonomy to secretly defy the amphora. the persecuted reformer was given a comfortable room invite book council he was to want for nothing. though forced into hiding luther had not been silenced his writings spread across europe. faced with an unknown period of confinement luther decided to make good use of his time. he adopted a pseudonym. and changed his appearance. and
he began a revolutionary work a translation of the bible into german luther wanted the word of gaunt to be accessible to everyone including lay readers he rejected church doctrine that maintained the pope was the sole authority of interpreter of scripture his followers would come to be called evangelical from the latin and german words for gospel. it took luther just a few weeks to complete his translation of the new testament into german. a new communications technology gave him fast access to a wide audience. the printing press. the individual letters were cast back to front laid out in galleys and fixed in
position the ink was made of linseed oil insert a formula which produced pages that haven't faded in centuries the sheet was printed in the press this device later lent its name to an entire branch of media the press. at the start of the sixteenth century there were four hundred printing facilities in the german speaking world. as print shop in fifth and back was the first to publish luther's new testament in september fifteenth twenty two. with sixty six reprints the work had had a run of one hundred thousand copies by fifteen twenty five it was the first bestseller in german history. his translation
wasn't always literal he used everyday language with colloquial turns of phrase. the new testament in german a translation by martin luther. king. traveling booksellers often luther's bible for sale at markets demand was huge. concert when you read yes and then read. a sample come and listen listen to what she's reading the new testament in germany my address commented out at a time of widespread illiteracy reading out loud was a common practice. once at school he does forget i'm leaked it and then got discussed. and feel if i share. like you feel and all this come i'm of its virtue and lick the notes the words of the bible in the language of the
germans and it leaves and you know it's easy sure. it's going. soon and my body is sad i'm going to. get through to. you just got my studio on the book good to see who's. going to. lose his translation of the complete bible was published in germany in fifteen twenty four an original copy is preserved in the anna amalia library environment. luther's work had a profound impact on the development of the german language the author dedicated it to his protect and the electro saxony his bible led to a standardized nation of the german language which in turn fostered a stronger sense of common identity among german speakers.
who does speak luther's bible translation didn't just serve to strengthen the sense of community within the protestant movement it also had a long term impact on the german nation as a whole doctrine his language became the language of literature with a twist interestingly and unbeknown to them catholics were also impacted by this development if it happened behind their back so to speak them and in workings of the economy fast. it wasn't just the bible that spread from that back but so too did lose his reformation teachings neither would have been possible without the protection of the saxon prince but frederick the wise never fully embraced luther's teachings and remained a catholic all his life. hold up and vote for castle luther was aware of the debt he owed the prince for his protection he also knew that in return the elector expected luther's loyalty that
loyalty was put to the test by development that shook wide swathes of german speaking europe and brought those regions to the brink of out right civil war. yeah a bloody uprising staged by peasants demanding greater rights and freedom encouraged by luther's reformation ideas they used his arguments to justify their revolt the peasants will pose the deep dilemma for luther. should he stay true to his conscience or to his princely protector. thuli the president's war panorama in franken hausen is one of the largest paintings in the world in great detail it depicts the first revolution on german soil emboldened by the religious reform movement the peasants saw to overthrow the
feudal system under which they were bound to the estates of nobleman and forced to give up most of what they produced. the revolt was sparked by opposition to new taxes and duties on the german service and based on their interpretation of scripture paying a time is on the fruits of the earth had long been exacted on the peasant as a form of church tax. but now the lord sought to extend this payment to the possession of animals the tax collectors invoked divine law to justify their demands. luther's translation of the bible into german allowed people to verify those demands by consulting scripture themselves. it's a complete injustice to take
a ties to animals to. the consulate how dare you don't the rightfulness of our actions. those who possess launch stock have to pay at times from them that's what it says in the bible a parish priest have vouchers for dr. holders what for the we voted for ourselves in later the bible says nothing of the sort we watch yourselves your lot in mouth will undo you you will pay a tithe on all your animals either that or in coins and if you don't see you in court on this day and you are the emperor the judge we would be as steadfast as dr luther extortionist so. many peasants refuse to continue tolerating such conditions luther was their role model and the boot should be laced shoes the emblem of never evolved.
when the conflict threatened to escalate the peasants called for luther the reformer left his hiding place invite book counsel and travel to the rebels in the hope of defusing the situation. luthor that shown how to resist the all thirty of the emperor and pope both townspeople and peasants now wanted to follow his example. i was a lot if god spoke german yes i tell you yes. yeah how else would he have understood your prayers he had a chance of a good beat a fresh one. god has understood them and he has ons of them done on. earth.
is that also true for the prayers of us and has a nice bow on. the peasants expected luther to side with them. god turned out he bought god also he is the peasants and he sees the injustice done to them. but fighting injustice with injustice is not god's will it's the will of the devil puts out. luther distanced himself from the peasants when violence broke out in may fifteen twenty five they also targeted members of the high in ability. yes this is now it's your turn count. you to meet your judgement hasn't so be it go.
the bloodshed triggered a radical change of heart in the fact he now saw the devil at work and even appealed to the german princes to crush the peasants. let whoever can stab strangle and kill them like mad dogs. luther described the war against the peasants as a battle against the forces of evil. the decisive battle took place near franken hausen in fear in gen six thousand peasants lost their lives. advocated the preservation of divinely appointed author to secure his reformation he sacrificed the peasants. to. the end of
a people's hero. the peasants and the reformer were not seeking the same types of freedom. the goals of fighting that side the core issue at the time was the term freedom of the term had different meanings for different players for luther. it meant first and foremost the freedom of a christian regarded as the passons it meant the freedom from jews and bond with daughter to this day for the princes it was the political freedom to rule their territories and it was a similar story for the town magistrate as florian would end his of. one man's freedom was another man's loss catholic property was lost to the church wherever rulers adopted the new face in outsell a saxony the monastery was disbanded the building turned into a quarry. and. it was
a fate the oldest indian priory in that neighborhood was spared. the nectar of saxony gave the property to his famous subject martin luther and his new family. and in june fifteenth twenty five martin luther married the former nun catalina fun for the reformer had called for the abolition of celibacy in his earliest writings. luther's married life was not untouched by political upheaval my debt is no latin and five bedroom no not just these last lines it's urgent people are waiting. at forty two the former monk became the master of his own household and a happy husband god gave me cater and i don't want to give her up not for france
nor for venice. commonalities code indeed. is lent over already travelled by. endeavor to luther himself is supposed to have said twice a week long time not. well then it must be right. catalina and martin luther founded an institution versus the clerical marriage had a tremendous impact on cultural history because it effectively ended religions demonization of sexuality for toys for sex hostas also made of flesh and blood doesn't mention flies not macit and it was a bombshell after not just for luther as contemporary. nobody inside. the reformation didn't just revolutionize family life with its emphasis on the
sermon it also transformed religious services. the core messages depicted above the altar of the church invest in back salvation cannot be earned through good works sacraments or indulgences. salvation is attained only through the grace of god. there was no longer any into meijer a between god and humankind neither a pope nor a church. luther had paved the way to a new world order. charles the fifth was determined to prevent its emergence after the edict yvonne's he'd left germany to wage war on numerous fronts. neglecting the struggle against the reformation. protestantism spread now charles decided to reassert his
authority as the chief defender of catholic christendom he would restore the old order one emperor one empire one church. after the pope agreed to crown him emperor in bologna a in february fifteenth thirty charles traveled to germany with his army of mercenaries there was a renewed showdown with luther's followers this time at the diet of alex book. the chancellor of saxony christiane bear spoke for the protestants. my your majesty in this document we have laid down the basic doctrine of our faith. galoot theron's wanted a settlement for church unity it would suffice if there was agreement on the teaching of the gospel and administration of the sacraments they sought to sever
their faith in the papal hierarchy and rome. but the confession of our expert that laid down the core lutheran doctrine was rejected by both the emperor and the papal envoy. the emperor will startle your new confession however he believes only the roman curia is qualified and intitled to compose texts of this nature. that tax lacks any polemical antagonism with regard to the church in rome and indeed if any text ever had a shot at facilitating an agreement it was the outs book confession code to the new confession. a lot of time has passed since of orms the ideas are not confined to this book they are out there in the world.
so who's. design them his majesty regrets not having eliminated the heretic and his ideas at ones involving. the lutheran powers knew that a confrontation with the emperor was just a matter of time. made these or was this document piece is within reach everyone may keep their faith wherever they are without feeling constrained or threatened if. charles hope to turn back the clock he was ready for the battle against protestant princes towns and landholders if necessary he would settle the protestant challenge by force of arms. design of my estate his majesty isn't afraid of war he gives you six months before his mercenaries enforce peace if we give. in charles reinstated the edict of warm condemning luther.
once again the lutheran princes left the diet under protest and the noun protestants was coined a label for the new political identity. by the mid sixteenth century only the bavarian hartman's parts of bohemia and austria as well as the territories to the west of the rhine remained roman catholic pope had lost all influence across the rest of the empire. luther and self but only been able to follow the events in out spoke from afar. does talk as though that ended without the protestants the news for now spoke was bleak. you know it's bad. a military showdown was looming loose his life's work was in danger he had only
wanted to reform the church but it gonna do rath of the highest authorities he'd wanted to liberate christians but it fosters strife. who knows what god wants and what plans he has for us germans. martin luther sense that the conflict with the church and the emperor was coming to a head the peaceful solution was not in sight. this is the first map of protestant germany drawn up by the katanga for sebastian minster in the mid sixteenth century the borders between the principalities play as insignificant a role as the who run an empire but this vision was threatened by the specter of an empire i'm about to strike back.
fearing the worst protestants rally together in the town of. eighteen princes and representatives from twenty eight towns in the empire joined forces in a new defensive alliance. they demanded the right to choose their religion and their territories. the document drawing up the league in april fifteenth forty seven the alliance was put to the test. as troops approached the river elbe from the west closing in on the unsuspecting forces of the league and camped on the east and bank. the protestants led by john frederick of saxony trusted in god.
but i have news from the scouts of the emperor has advanced as far as allows a given it's by laws and he'll still have to cross the aisle but that buys us time that skipped on sight sight time enough to prepare the warm welcome the emperor deserves and found. the protestant army felt safe on the other side of the river which it deemed impossible for the emperor's artillery. but charles was determined to take the initiative on the cover a sick fuck his soldiers folded the elder cut down the guards and secured a floating bridge. if it succeeded the surprise attack would route the troops.
the men under john frederick trusted england. but the emperor's troops banked on the element of surprise. the for. the for. the stealthy attack caused panic among the forward scouts of the small county glee . then he. dressed in splendid. arrived wholly unexpected while most of his infantry had crossed the floating bridge the cavalry found a ford higher up stream. his defeat of the protestants at the battle of mubarak was
decisive. the portrayed by commemorating his victory had reached his goal of returning germany to the empires followed. after his triumph on the battlefield the emperor went on to capture the town where everything and begun that in the. but the man he had declared an enemy of the state was no longer alive. the great reformer had died at the age of sixty two one year before the battle of midway back in february fifteenth forty six. a quarter of a century after the diet of forms the emperor and counted the reformer again at length his tomb in the council chechens that and back. the victorious habsburg ruler wanted to see the grave of his anniversary with his
own eyes. dead or alive but he's a heretic and cats are. most famous burn. join should be gotten out. charles was advised to dig up and burn the heretics bones. feel the quake by wage war with the living not the dead. luther's tomb was closed. what remains noticed long first ago luther's long term impact on germany and the germans is the cultural and more specifically the linguistic achievement which through this translation of the bible has had repercussions far beyond the protestant territory as you know he also had a political impact that he supported the development of territorial states of the modernity and in this respect you could say that luther advanced the federalized nation of germany the zeal deutschland sanga treatment. luther's vision of
a new face surge division the church in germany fractured into the good. with the loss of church unity the old political order to was irretrievably lost. princes towns and entire regions embrace to luther's doctrine. yet the man who found refuge in casa left behind fall more than a theological legacy. martin luther's appearance involves was a rallying cry not only for freedom of religion but also for freedom in secular offenses in germany and elsewhere his translation of the bible laid the foundation for a nation bound together by a common language luther was a unifying and a divider his legacy has shaped german history five centuries.
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